International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Engineering

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Integrated Petrophysical and Petrographical Studies for Reservoir Characterization: A Case Study of the Khmer Basin in Cambodian Water, Gulf of Thailand

Received: 30 November 2023    Accepted: 26 December 2023    Published: 11 January 2024
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Abstract

The Khmer Basin is one of the sedimentary basins in the Gulf of Thailand (GoT). This basin is located in the central east of the gulf, about 180 km from the Cambodian coastal baseline and an average of 80 m water depth in offshore Cambodia. It is an elongated N-S trending rift basin that extends 150 km in length and 60 km in width. Even though a high potential hydrocarbon accumulation reservoir was discovered in the late nineteenth century, the Apsara oil field in the northeast of the basin just started producing the first oil for Cambodia in late 2020 by KrisEnergy. However, there are a small number of publications about the Khmer Basin compared to the Pattani Basin to the west and the Malay Basin to the south. This study aims to identify the textures of the sedimentary grain, mineralogy, and diagenesis process of sandstone reservoirs which correspond to the quality of porosity and permeability in the confined layers from the Oligocene to Middle Miocene age. The core samples of the exploration well, Apsara-1 (1993), were provided by the General Department of Petroleum (GDP), Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) for the purposes of academics. Thin section and SEM microscopic image analysis are applied to assist this petrographic study to observe the rock components and the relationship of grains and matrix, cementation and the diagenetic processes. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) is used to determine the mineral compositions and clay minerals. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) is used to evaluate major oxide concentrations in reservoir intervals. The stratigraphy in a section, ranging from 2776 m to 2781 m consists of sandstones interbedding with shales and coals. Mudstones which are composed of silt shale and coal appear in dark-grey to black thin layers in the study section. The porosity of the sample determines the diverse pore spaces in the reservoir sand, ranging under 12%. The data analysis, the clastic, pore geometry, buried compaction, diageneses and fractures impact relatively on reservoir quality. The porosity reduction is directly influenced by mechanical compaction, quartz overgrowth, the pore fillings by detrital clays and mineral replacement.

DOI 10.11648/j.ogce.20241201.12
Published in International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Engineering (Volume 12, Issue 1, February 2024)
Page(s) 10-19
Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited.

Copyright

Copyright © The Author(s), 2024. Published by Science Publishing Group

Keywords

Apsara Oil Field, Khmer Basin, Pattani Basin, Sandstone Reservoir, Reservoir Quality and Diagenesis

References
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[2] Q. Rigby, "Living and prospering in an energy hungry world Thailand Cambodia Overlapping Claim Area… Revisited," 2013.
[3] A. Okui, A. Imayoshi, and K. Tsuji, "Petroleum system in the Khmer trough, Cambodia," 1997.
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[5] CNPA, "The case study of Cambodian petroleum sector," CCOP, 2003.
[6] CNPA, "Petroleum Sector in Cambodia," CCOP, Presentation 2012.
[7] CNPA, "Regional Geology in Khmer Basin," CCOP, 2002. [Online]. Available: http://www.ccop.or.th/epf/cambodia/cambodia_us.html.
[8] K. Sokunthea et al., "Reservoir characteristics and production performance forecast using decline curve analysis (DCA) of the five production wells in Apsara field, Cambodia Block A," SPE, 2022.
[9] KrisEnergy, "Cambodia's maiden Apsara oil field comes onstream," 2020.
[10] B. Lepic, "KrisEnergy starts up Cambodia's first offshore oil field.," Offshore Energy, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.offshore-energy.biz/krisenergy-starts-up-cambodias-first-offshore-oil-field/#:~:text=KrisEnergy%20started%20producing%20oil%20from.
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[14] A. Kornsawan and C. Morley, "The origin and evolution of complex transfer zones (graben shifts) in conjugate fault systems around the Funan Field, Pattani Basin, Gulf of Thailand," Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 435-449, 2002.
[15] M. B. Fyhn et al., "Palaeocene–early Eocene inversion of the Phuquoc–Kampot Som Basin: SE Asian deformation associated with the suturing of Luconia," Journal of the Geological Society, vol. 167, no. 2, pp. 281-295, 2010.
[16] V. Vysotsky, R. Rodnikova, and M. N. Li, "The petroleum geology of Cambodia," Journal of Petroleum Geology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 195-210, 1994.
[17] K. Neak, K. Kret, T. Sreu, S. Seang, and C. Or, "The Milestone of Cambodian First Oil Production in the Khmer Basin, Gulf of Thailand," Open Journal of Yangtze Oil and Gas, vol. 08, no. 02, pp. 19-42, 2023, doi: 10.4236/ojogas.2023.82003.
[18] L. Rigo de Rhigi, J. Baranowski, C. Chaikiturajai, G. Nelson, D. Wechsler, and G. Mattingly, "Block B8/32, Gulf of Thailand petroleum system and implementation of technology in field development," Seapex Press, vol. 6, pp. 46-55, 2002.
[19] P. D. Lundegard and A. S. Trevena, "Sandstone diagenesis in the Pattani Basin (Gulf of Thailand): history of water-rock interaction and comparison with the Gulf of Mexico," Applied Geochemistry, vol. 5, no. 5-6, pp. 669-685, 1990.
[20] Q. U. Z. Dar et al., "The impact of diagenesis on the reservoir quality of the early Cretaceous Lower Goru sandstones in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan," Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, pp. 1-16, 2022.
[21] P. Chima, C. Baiyegunhi, K. Liu, and O. Gwavava, "Diagenesis and rock properties of sandstones from the Stormberg Group, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa," Open Geosciences, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 740-771, 2018.
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[25] J. Li, X. Zhang, J. Tian, Q. Liang, and T. Cao, "Effects of deposition and diagenesis on sandstone reservoir quality: A case study of Permian sandstones formed in a braided river sedimentary system, northern Ordos Basin, Northern China," Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 213, p. 104745, 2021.
[26] A. M. Ali and E. Padmanabhan, "Quartz surface morphology of Tertiary rocks from North East Sarawak, Malaysia: Implications for paleo-depositional environment and reservoir rock quality predictions," Petroleum exploration and development, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 761-770, 2014.
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    Neak, K., Kret, K., Sreu, T., Seang, S., Khoun, S., et al. (2024). Integrated Petrophysical and Petrographical Studies for Reservoir Characterization: A Case Study of the Khmer Basin in Cambodian Water, Gulf of Thailand. International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Engineering, 12(1), 10-19. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ogce.20241201.12

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    Neak, K.; Kret, K.; Sreu, T.; Seang, S.; Khoun, S., et al. Integrated Petrophysical and Petrographical Studies for Reservoir Characterization: A Case Study of the Khmer Basin in Cambodian Water, Gulf of Thailand. Int. J. Oil Gas Coal Eng. 2024, 12(1), 10-19. doi: 10.11648/j.ogce.20241201.12

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    AMA Style

    Neak K, Kret K, Sreu T, Seang S, Khoun S, et al. Integrated Petrophysical and Petrographical Studies for Reservoir Characterization: A Case Study of the Khmer Basin in Cambodian Water, Gulf of Thailand. Int J Oil Gas Coal Eng. 2024;12(1):10-19. doi: 10.11648/j.ogce.20241201.12

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  • @article{10.11648/j.ogce.20241201.12,
      author = {Kimhak Neak and Kakda Kret and Tola Sreu and Sirisokha Seang and Sokunthea Khoun and Chanmoly Or},
      title = {Integrated Petrophysical and Petrographical Studies for Reservoir Characterization: A Case Study of the Khmer Basin in Cambodian Water, Gulf of Thailand},
      journal = {International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Engineering},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {10-19},
      doi = {10.11648/j.ogce.20241201.12},
      url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ogce.20241201.12},
      eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ogce.20241201.12},
      abstract = {The Khmer Basin is one of the sedimentary basins in the Gulf of Thailand (GoT). This basin is located in the central east of the gulf, about 180 km from the Cambodian coastal baseline and an average of 80 m water depth in offshore Cambodia. It is an elongated N-S trending rift basin that extends 150 km in length and 60 km in width. Even though a high potential hydrocarbon accumulation reservoir was discovered in the late nineteenth century, the Apsara oil field in the northeast of the basin just started producing the first oil for Cambodia in late 2020 by KrisEnergy. However, there are a small number of publications about the Khmer Basin compared to the Pattani Basin to the west and the Malay Basin to the south. This study aims to identify the textures of the sedimentary grain, mineralogy, and diagenesis process of sandstone reservoirs which correspond to the quality of porosity and permeability in the confined layers from the Oligocene to Middle Miocene age. The core samples of the exploration well, Apsara-1 (1993), were provided by the General Department of Petroleum (GDP), Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) for the purposes of academics. Thin section and SEM microscopic image analysis are applied to assist this petrographic study to observe the rock components and the relationship of grains and matrix, cementation and the diagenetic processes. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) is used to determine the mineral compositions and clay minerals. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) is used to evaluate major oxide concentrations in reservoir intervals. The stratigraphy in a section, ranging from 2776 m to 2781 m consists of sandstones interbedding with shales and coals. Mudstones which are composed of silt shale and coal appear in dark-grey to black thin layers in the study section. The porosity of the sample determines the diverse pore spaces in the reservoir sand, ranging under 12%. The data analysis, the clastic, pore geometry, buried compaction, diageneses and fractures impact relatively on reservoir quality. The porosity reduction is directly influenced by mechanical compaction, quartz overgrowth, the pore fillings by detrital clays and mineral replacement.
    },
     year = {2024}
    }
    

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    T2  - International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Engineering
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    JO  - International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Engineering
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    AB  - The Khmer Basin is one of the sedimentary basins in the Gulf of Thailand (GoT). This basin is located in the central east of the gulf, about 180 km from the Cambodian coastal baseline and an average of 80 m water depth in offshore Cambodia. It is an elongated N-S trending rift basin that extends 150 km in length and 60 km in width. Even though a high potential hydrocarbon accumulation reservoir was discovered in the late nineteenth century, the Apsara oil field in the northeast of the basin just started producing the first oil for Cambodia in late 2020 by KrisEnergy. However, there are a small number of publications about the Khmer Basin compared to the Pattani Basin to the west and the Malay Basin to the south. This study aims to identify the textures of the sedimentary grain, mineralogy, and diagenesis process of sandstone reservoirs which correspond to the quality of porosity and permeability in the confined layers from the Oligocene to Middle Miocene age. The core samples of the exploration well, Apsara-1 (1993), were provided by the General Department of Petroleum (GDP), Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) for the purposes of academics. Thin section and SEM microscopic image analysis are applied to assist this petrographic study to observe the rock components and the relationship of grains and matrix, cementation and the diagenetic processes. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) is used to determine the mineral compositions and clay minerals. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) is used to evaluate major oxide concentrations in reservoir intervals. The stratigraphy in a section, ranging from 2776 m to 2781 m consists of sandstones interbedding with shales and coals. Mudstones which are composed of silt shale and coal appear in dark-grey to black thin layers in the study section. The porosity of the sample determines the diverse pore spaces in the reservoir sand, ranging under 12%. The data analysis, the clastic, pore geometry, buried compaction, diageneses and fractures impact relatively on reservoir quality. The porosity reduction is directly influenced by mechanical compaction, quartz overgrowth, the pore fillings by detrital clays and mineral replacement.
    
    VL  - 12
    IS  - 1
    ER  - 

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Author Information
  • Research and Innovation Centre, Institute of Technology of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; General Department of Petroleum, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

  • Research and Innovation Centre, Institute of Technology of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Faculty of Geo-Resource and Geotechnical Engineering, Institute of Technology of Cambodia, Russian Federation Blvd., Phnom Penh, Cambodia

  • Faculty of Geo-Resource and Geotechnical Engineering, Institute of Technology of Cambodia, Russian Federation Blvd., Phnom Penh, Cambodia

  • Faculty of Geo-Resource and Geotechnical Engineering, Institute of Technology of Cambodia, Russian Federation Blvd., Phnom Penh, Cambodia

  • General Department of Petroleum, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Phnom Penh, Cambodia

  • Research and Innovation Centre, Institute of Technology of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Faculty of Geo-Resource and Geotechnical Engineering, Institute of Technology of Cambodia, Russian Federation Blvd., Phnom Penh, Cambodia

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